Explore the research behind the Ardis Acne System.

Explore the research behind The Ardis Acne System.


Ardis Acne System

Supportive Studies

1. V Mazarello, MG Donadu, M Ferrari, G Piga, D Usai, S Zanetti, and MA Sotgiu. “Treatment of acne with a combination of propolis, tea tree oil, and Aloe vera compared to erythromycin cream: two double-blind investigations.” Clin Pharmacol. 2018; 10: 175–181.

2. Stephanie de Rapper, Guy Kamatou, Alvaro Viljoen, and Sandy van Vuuren. “The In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Lavandula angustifolia Essential Oil in Combination with Other Aroma-Therapeutic Oils.” Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013.

3. Sujin Shin. “Antimicrobial and Improvement Effects of Tea Tree and Lavender Oils on Acne Lesions.” Journal of Convergence Information Technology, August 2013.

4. Mohammed H. Taleb, Nourtan F. Abdeltawab, Rehab N. Shamma, Sherein S. Abdelgayed, Sarah S. Mohamed, Mohamed A. Farag, and Mohammed A. Ramadan, “Origanum vulgare L. Essential Oil as a Potential Anti-Acne Topical Nanoemulsion—In Vitro and In Vivo Study.” Molecules. 2018 Sep; 23(9): 2164.

5. Mohd Irfan Naik, Bashir Ahmad Fomda, Ebenezar Jaykumar, Javid Ahmad Bhat, “Antibacterial activity of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) oil against some selected pathogenic bacteria’s.” Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine,Volume 3, Issue 7, August 2010, Pages 535-538.

6. Raman A, Weir U, Bloomfield SF. “Antimicrobial effects of tea-tree oil and its major components on Staphylococcus aureus, Staph. epidermidis and Propionibacterium acnes.” Lett Appl Microbiol. 1995 Oct; 21(4):242-5.

7. Enshaleh S, Jooya A, Siadat AM, Iraji F. “The efficacy of 5% topical tea tree oil gel to moderate acne vulgaris: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study.” Ind J Derm Venereol Leprol. 2007;73(1):22–25.

8. Hammer KA. Treatment of acne with tea tree oil (mela-leuca) products: a review of efficacy, tolerability and potential modes of action. Int J Antimicrob Agents 2015:45 (2): 106–110.

9. Zander E, Weisman S. “Treatment of acne vulgaris with salicylic acid pads.” Clin Ther. 1992 Mar-Apr;14(2):247-53.

10. Zander E, Weisman S. “Comparison of a salicylic acid cleanser and a benzoyl peroxide wash in the treatment of acne vulgaris.” Shalita AR. Clin Ther. 1989 Mar-Apr; 11(2):264-7.

11. N. Akhtar et al (2010). Formulation and evaluation of antisebum secretion effects of sea buckthorn w/o emulsion. J Pharm Bioallied Sci. 2010 Jan-Mar; 2(1), 13-17.

12. Naveed Akhtar, Barkat A. Khan, Tariq Mahmood, Rashida Parveen, Mughal Qayum, Masood Anwar, Shahiq-uz-zaman, and Muhammad Farooq. “Formulation and evaluation of antisebum secretion effects of sea buckthorn w/o emulsion.” J Pharm Bioallied Sci. 2010 Jan-Mar; 2(1): 13–17.

13. Downing DT, Stewart ME, Wertz PW, Strauss JS. “Essential fatty acids and acne.” J Am Acad Dermatol. 1986 Feb;14(2 Pt 1):221-5.

14. Ando H1, Ryu A, Hashimoto A, Oka M, Ichihashi M. “Linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid lightens ultraviolet-induced hyperpigmentation of the skin.”Arch Dermatol Res. 1998 Jul;290(7):375-81.

15. Juliano Garavaglia, Melissa M. Markoski, Aline Oliveira, and Aline Marcadentii. “Grape Seed Oil Compounds: Biological and Chemical Actions for Health.” Nutr Metab Insights. 2016; 9: 59–64.

16. Dorsaf Moalla Rekik, Sameh Ben Khedir, Kamilia Ksouda Moalla, Naziha Grati Kammoun, Tarek Rebai, and Zouheir Sahnoun. “Evaluation of Wound Healing Properties of Grape Seed, Sesame, and Fenugreek Oils.” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine Volume 2016, Article ID 7965689, 12 pages.

17. Chan H, Chan G, Santos J, Dee K, Co JK. “A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to determine the efficacy and safety of lactoferrin with vitamin E and zinc as an oral therapy for mild to moderate acne vulgaris.” Int J Dermatol. 2017 Jun;56(6):686-690.

18. Nicola Zampieri, Veronica Zuin, Roberto Burro, Alberto Ottolenghi, Francesco Saverio Camoglio. “A prospective study in children: Pre- and post-surgery use of vitamin E in surgical incisions.” Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery, Volume 63, Issue 9, 1474 – 1478.

19. Ozuguz P, Dogruk Kacar S, Ekiz O, Takci Z, Balta I, Kalkan G. “Evaluation of serum vitamins A and E and zinc levels according to the severity of acne vulgaris.” Cutan Ocul Toxicol. 2014 Jun;33(2):99-102.

20. Leung, LH, “Pantothenic acid deficiency as the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris,”Medical Hypotheses, June 1995, Volume 44, Issue 6, pages 490 – 492.

21. Leung, LH, A Stone that Kills two Birds: “How Pantothenic Acid Unveils theMysteries of Acne Vulgaris and Obesity,” The Journal of OrthomolecularMedicine, Volume 12, 2nd Quarter, 1997.

22. Michael Yang, Betsy Moclair, Virgil Hatcher, Jed Kaminetsky, Maria Mekas, Ann Chapas, and Jillian Capodice. “ A Randomized, Double-lind, Placebo-Controlled Study of a Novel Pantothenic Acid-Based Dietary Supplement in Subjects with Mild to Moderate Facial Acne.” Dermatol Ther (Heidelb). 2014 Jun; 4(1): 93–101.

23. Cavicchini S, Caputo R. “Long-term treatment of acne with 20% azelaic acid cream.” Acta Derm Venereol Suppl (Stockh). 1989;143:40-4.

24. Gollnick HP, Graupe K, Zaumseil RP. “Azelaic acid 15% gel in the treatment of acne vulgaris. Combined results of two double-blind clinical comparative studies.” J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2004 Oct;2(10):841-7.

25. Jacob Thomas, “Role of zinc in acne: a study of 77 patients.” International Journal of Research in Dermatology” Thomas J. Int J Res Dermatol. 2018 Aug;4(3).

26. Langner A, Sheehan-Dare R, Layton A. A randomized, single-blind comparison of topical clindamycin + benzoyl peroxide (Duac) and erythromycin + zinc acetate (Zineryt) in the treatment of mild to moderate facial acne vulgaris. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology. 2007;21(3):311–319.

27. Sharquie KE, Naoimi AA, AI-Salih MM. Topical therapy of acne vulgaris using 2% tea tree lotion in comparison with 5% zinc sulphate solution. Saudi Medical Journal. 2008;29(12):1757-1761. 

28. Staci Brandt, “The Clinical Effects of Zinc as a Topical or Oral Agent on the Clinical Response and Pathophysiologic Mechanisms of Acne: A Systematic Review of the Literature.”, J Drugs Dermatol. 2013;12(5):542-545.

29. Mills OH Jr, Kligman AM, Pochi P, Comite H. “Comparing 2.5%, 5%, and 10% benzoyl peroxide on inflammatory acne vulgaris.” Int J Dermatol. 1986 Dec;25(10):664-7.

30. Dogra J, Aneja N, Saxena V N. “Oral gugulipid in acne vulgaris management.” Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 1990;56:381-3.

31. Thappa DM, Dogra. “Nodulocystic acne: oral gugulipid versus tetracycline.” J. Journal of Dermatology, 1994 Oct; 21(10):729-31.

32. Pilar Pais, Agusti Villar, Santiago Rull. “Determination of the potency of a novel saw palmetto supercritical CO2 extract (SPSE) for 5α-reductase isoform II inhibition using a cell-free in vitro test system.” Res Rep Urol. 2016; 8: 41–49.

33. Forstrom L. “The Influence of Sex Hormones on Acne.” Acta Derm Venereol Suppl (Stockh). 1980;Suppl 89:27-31.

34. Grant P, Ramasamy S. “An update on plant derived anti-androgens.” Int J Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Spring;10(2):497-502.

35. Takeuchi T, Nishii O, Okamura T, Yaginuma T.   Am J Chin Med. 1991; 19(1):73-8.

36. Y. B. Song, “80 Cases of Acne Treating by Dan Zhi Xiao Yao Powder,” Yunnan Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Materia Medica, Vol. 29, No. 11, 2008, p.33.

37. Hein T. Lei, Charlene M. Schaldach, Gary L. Firestone, Leonard F. Bjeldanes. The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2003 June: 278, 21136-21145.

38. Alphi P. Elakattu, Lining Feng, Zhi Wang. “A controlled safety study of DIM in the immature rat model.” Laryngoscope. 2009 Sep; 119(9):1803-08.

39. Kugman, O. Mills, J. Leyden, et al., “Oral Vitamin A in Acne Vulgaris,” Int J Dermatol 20 (1981):278-85.

40. B. Snider and D. Dieteman, “Piridoxine Therapy for Premenstral Acne Flare,” Nutrition Reviews, Vol. 1, Issue 5, March 1943, Pages 157-59.

41. Norman Joliffe, Louis A. Rosenblum, John Sawhill. “Journal of Investigative Dermatology Volume 5”. Issue 3;(1942):143-48.

42. G. Michaelson and L. Edqvist, “Erythrocyte Glutathione Peroxidase Activity in Acne Vulgaris and the Effect of Selenium and Vitamin E Treatment.” Acta Derm Venerol 64 (1984)9-14.

43. Rubin MG, Kim K, Logan AC. “Acne vulgaris, mental health and omega-3 fatty acids: a report of cases.” Lipids Health Dis. 2008 Oct 13;7:36.

44. M. McCarthy, “High Chromium Yeast for Acne?” Med Hypoth 14(1984): 307-10.

45. K.M. Abdel, A. El Mofty, A. Ismail, and F. Bassili. “Glucose Tolerance in Blood and Skin of Patients with Acne Vulgaris.” Ind J Derm 22 (1977):139-49.

46. Samira Missaoui, Khémais Ben Rhouma, Mohamed-Tahar Yacoubi, Mohsen Sakly, and Olfa Tebourbi, “Vanadyl Sulfate Treatment Stimulates Proliferation and Regeneration of Beta Cells in Pancreatic Islets,” Journal of Diabetes Research, vol. 2014, Article ID 540242, 7 pages, 2014.

47. J. Cohen, and A. Cohen, “Pustular Acne Staphyloderma and Its Treatment with Tolbutamide.” Can Med Asoc J 80 (1959):629-32.

48. Dreno B, Moyse D, Alirezai M, et al. Muticenter, randomized, comparative, double-blind controlled clinical trial of the safety and efficacy of zinc gluconate versus minocycline hydrochloride in the treatment of inflammatory acne vulgaris. Dermatology. 2001;203(2):135–140.

49. G. Micahaelson, A. Vahlquist, and L. Juhlin. “A Double-Blind Study of the Effect of Zinc and Oxytetracycline in Acne Vulgaris.” Br J Dermatol 97 (1977):561-5.

50.  B. Dreno et al., “Low Doses of Zinc Gluconate for Inflammatory Acne.” Acta Derm Venerol 69 (1989): 541-3.


  1. V Mazarello, MG Donadu, M Ferrari, G Piga, D Usai, S Zanetti, and MA Sotgiu. “Treatment of acne with a combination of propolis, tea tree oil, and Aloe vera compared to erythromycin cream: two double-blind investigations.” Clin Pharmacol. 2018; 10: 175–181.
  2. Stephanie de Rapper, Guy Kamatou, Alvaro Viljoen, and Sandy van Vuuren. “The In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Lavandula angustifolia Essential Oil in Combination with Other Aroma-Therapeutic Oils.” Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013.
  3. Sujin Shin. “Antimicrobial and Improvement Effects of Tea Tree and Lavender Oils on Acne Lesions.” Journal of Convergence Information Technology, August 2013.
  4. Mohammed H. Taleb, Nourtan F. Abdeltawab, Rehab N. Shamma, Sherein S. Abdelgayed, Sarah S. Mohamed, Mohamed A. Farag, and Mohammed A. Ramadan, “Origanum vulgare L. Essential Oil as a Potential Anti-Acne Topical Nanoemulsion—In Vitro and In Vivo Study.” Molecules. 2018 Sep; 23(9): 2164.
  5. Mohd Irfan Naik, Bashir Ahmad Fomda, Ebenezar Jaykumar, Javid Ahmad Bhat, “Antibacterial activity of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) oil against some selected pathogenic bacteria’s.” Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine,Volume 3, Issue 7, August 2010, Pages 535-538.
  6. Raman A, Weir U, Bloomfield SF. “Antimicrobial effects of tea-tree oil and its major components on Staphylococcus aureus, Staph. epidermidis and Propionibacterium acnes.” Lett Appl Microbiol. 1995 Oct; 21(4):242-5.
  7. Enshaleh S, Jooya A, Siadat AM, Iraji F. “The efficacy of 5% topical tea tree oil gel to moderate acne vulgaris: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study.” Ind J Derm Venereol Leprol. 2007;73(1):22–25.
  8. Hammer KA. Treatment of acne with tea tree oil (mela-leuca) products: a review of efficacy, tolerability and potential modes of action. Int J Antimicrob Agents 2015:45 (2): 106–110.
  9. Zander E, Weisman S. “Treatment of acne vulgaris with salicylic acid pads.” Clin Ther. 1992 Mar-Apr;14(2):247-53.
  10. Zander E, Weisman S. “Comparison of a salicylic acid cleanser and a benzoyl peroxide wash in the treatment of acne vulgaris.” Shalita AR. Clin Ther. 1989 Mar-Apr; 11(2):264-7.
  11. N. Akhtar et al (2010). Formulation and evaluation of antisebum secretion effects of sea buckthorn w/o emulsion. J Pharm Bioallied Sci. 2010 Jan-Mar; 2(1), 13-17.
  12. Naveed Akhtar, Barkat A. Khan, Tariq Mahmood, Rashida Parveen, Mughal Qayum, Masood Anwar, Shahiq-uz-zaman, and Muhammad Farooq. “Formulation and evaluation of antisebum secretion effects of sea buckthorn w/o emulsion.” J Pharm Bioallied Sci. 2010 Jan-Mar; 2(1): 13–17.
  13. Downing DT, Stewart ME, Wertz PW, Strauss JS. “Essential fatty acids and acne.” J Am Acad Dermatol. 1986 Feb;14(2 Pt 1):221-5.
  14. Ando H1, Ryu A, Hashimoto A, Oka M, Ichihashi M. “Linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid lightens ultraviolet-induced hyperpigmentation of the skin.”Arch Dermatol Res. 1998 Jul;290(7):375-81.
  15. Juliano Garavaglia, Melissa M. Markoski, Aline Oliveira, and Aline Marcadentii. “Grape Seed Oil Compounds: Biological and Chemical Actions for Health.” Nutr Metab Insights. 2016; 9: 59–64.
  16. Dorsaf Moalla Rekik, Sameh Ben Khedir, Kamilia Ksouda Moalla, Naziha Grati Kammoun, Tarek Rebai, and Zouheir Sahnoun. “Evaluation of Wound Healing Properties of Grape Seed, Sesame, and Fenugreek Oils.” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine Volume 2016, Article ID 7965689, 12 pages.
  17. Chan H, Chan G, Santos J, Dee K, Co JK. “A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to determine the efficacy and safety of lactoferrin with vitamin E and zinc as an oral therapy for mild to moderate acne vulgaris.” Int J Dermatol. 2017 Jun;56(6):686-690.
  18. Nicola Zampieri, Veronica Zuin, Roberto Burro, Alberto Ottolenghi, Francesco Saverio Camoglio. “A prospective study in children: Pre- and post-surgery use of vitamin E in surgical incisions.” Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery, Volume 63, Issue 9, 1474 – 1478.
  19. Ozuguz P, Dogruk Kacar S, Ekiz O, Takci Z, Balta I, Kalkan G. “Evaluation of serum vitamins A and E and zinc levels according to the severity of acne vulgaris.” Cutan Ocul Toxicol. 2014 Jun;33(2):99-102.
  20. Leung, LH, “Pantothenic acid deficiency as the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris,”Medical Hypotheses, June 1995, Volume 44, Issue 6, pages 490 – 492.
  21. Leung, LH, A Stone that Kills two Birds: “How Pantothenic Acid Unveils theMysteries of Acne Vulgaris and Obesity,” The Journal of OrthomolecularMedicine, Volume 12, 2nd Quarter, 1997.
  22. Michael Yang, Betsy Moclair, Virgil Hatcher, Jed Kaminetsky, Maria Mekas, Ann Chapas, and Jillian Capodice. “ A Randomized, Double-lind, Placebo-Controlled Study of a Novel Pantothenic Acid-Based Dietary Supplement in Subjects with Mild to Moderate Facial Acne.” Dermatol Ther (Heidelb). 2014 Jun; 4(1): 93–101.
  23. Cavicchini S, Caputo R. “Long-term treatment of acne with 20% azelaic acid cream.” Acta Derm Venereol Suppl (Stockh). 1989;143:40-4.
  24. Gollnick HP, Graupe K, Zaumseil RP. “Azelaic acid 15% gel in the treatment of acne vulgaris. Combined results of two double-blind clinical comparative studies.” J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2004 Oct;2(10):841-7.
  25. Jacob Thomas, “Role of zinc in acne: a study of 77 patients.” International Journal of Research in Dermatology” Thomas J. Int J Res Dermatol. 2018 Aug;4(3).
  26. Langner A, Sheehan-Dare R, Layton A. A randomized, single-blind comparison of topical clindamycin + benzoyl peroxide (Duac) and erythromycin + zinc acetate (Zineryt) in the treatment of mild to moderate facial acne vulgaris. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology. 2007;21(3):311–319.
  27. Sharquie KE, Naoimi AA, AI-Salih MM. Topical therapy of acne vulgaris using 2% tea tree lotion in comparison with 5% zinc sulphate solution. Saudi Medical Journal. 2008;29(12):1757-1761. 
  28. Staci Brandt, “The Clinical Effects of Zinc as a Topical or Oral Agent on the Clinical Response and Pathophysiologic Mechanisms of Acne: A Systematic Review of the Literature.”, J Drugs Dermatol. 2013;12(5):542-545.
  29. Mills OH Jr, Kligman AM, Pochi P, Comite H. “Comparing 2.5%, 5%, and 10% benzoyl peroxide on inflammatory acne vulgaris.” Int J Dermatol. 1986 Dec;25(10):664-7.
  30. Dogra J, Aneja N, Saxena V N. “Oral gugulipid in acne vulgaris management.” Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 1990;56:381-3.
  31. Thappa DM, Dogra. “Nodulocystic acne: oral gugulipid versus tetracycline.” J. Journal of Dermatology, 1994 Oct; 21(10):729-31.
  32. Pilar Pais, Agusti Villar, Santiago Rull. “Determination of the potency of a novel saw palmetto supercritical CO2 extract (SPSE) for 5α-reductase isoform II inhibition using a cell-free in vitro test system.” Res Rep Urol. 2016; 8: 41–49.
  33. Forstrom L. “The Influence of Sex Hormones on Acne.” Acta Derm Venereol Suppl (Stockh). 1980;Suppl 89:27-31.
  34. Grant P, Ramasamy S. “An update on plant derived anti-androgens.” Int J Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Spring;10(2):497-502.
  35. Takeuchi T, Nishii O, Okamura T, Yaginuma T.   Am J Chin Med. 1991; 19(1):73-8.
  36. Y. B. Song, “80 Cases of Acne Treating by Dan Zhi Xiao Yao Powder,” Yunnan Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Materia Medica, Vol. 29, No. 11, 2008, p.33.
  37. Hein T. Lei, Charlene M. Schaldach, Gary L. Firestone, Leonard F. Bjeldanes. The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2003 June: 278, 21136-21145.
  38. Alphi P. Elakattu, Lining Feng, Zhi Wang. “A controlled safety study of DIM in the immature rat model.” Laryngoscope. 2009 Sep; 119(9):1803-08.
  39. Kugman, O. Mills, J. Leyden, et al., “Oral Vitamin A in Acne Vulgaris,” Int J Dermatol 20 (1981):278-85.
  40. B. Snider and D. Dieteman, “Piridoxine Therapy for Premenstral Acne Flare,” Nutrition Reviews, Vol. 1, Issue 5, March 1943, Pages 157-59.
  41. Norman Joliffe, Louis A. Rosenblum, John Sawhill. “Journal of Investigative Dermatology Volume 5”. Issue 3;(1942):143-48.
  42. G. Michaelson and L. Edqvist, “Erythrocyte Glutathione Peroxidase Activity in Acne Vulgaris and the Effect of Selenium and Vitamin E Treatment.” Acta Derm Venerol 64 (1984)9-14.
  43. Rubin MG, Kim K, Logan AC. “Acne vulgaris, mental health and omega-3 fatty acids: a report of cases.” Lipids Health Dis. 2008 Oct 13;7:36.
  44. M. McCarthy, “High Chromium Yeast for Acne?” Med Hypoth 14(1984): 307-10.
  45. K.M. Abdel, A. El Mofty, A. Ismail, and F. Bassili. “Glucose Tolerance in Blood and Skin of Patients with Acne Vulgaris.” Ind J Derm 22 (1977):139-49.
  46. Samira Missaoui, Khémais Ben Rhouma, Mohamed-Tahar Yacoubi, Mohsen Sakly, and Olfa Tebourbi, “Vanadyl Sulfate Treatment Stimulates Proliferation and Regeneration of Beta Cells in Pancreatic Islets,” Journal of Diabetes Research, vol. 2014, Article ID 540242, 7 pages, 2014.
  47. J. Cohen, and A. Cohen, “Pustular Acne Staphyloderma and Its Treatment with Tolbutamide.” Can Med Asoc J 80 (1959):629-32.
  48. Dreno B, Moyse D, Alirezai M, et al. Muticenter, randomized, comparative, double-blind controlled clinical trial of the safety and efficacy of zinc gluconate versus minocycline hydrochloride in the treatment of inflammatory acne vulgaris. Dermatology. 2001;203(2):135–140.
  49. G. Micahaelson, A. Vahlquist, and L. Juhlin. “A Double-Blind Study of the Effect of Zinc and Oxytetracycline in Acne Vulgaris.” Br J Dermatol 97 (1977):561-5.
  50. B. Dreno et al., “Low Doses of Zinc Gluconate for Inflammatory Acne.” Acta Derm Venerol 69 (1989): 541-3.